Istilah dan Terminologi Tourism Pariwisata

Dalam perkembangan bisnis tourism atau perhotelan dan pariwisata era ini, rupanya sudah banyak istilah dan terminologi tourism atau perhotelan dan pariwisata yang tercecer.

Saya sebagai salah satu senior di industri perhotelan dan pariwisata di Bali, Indonesia ini, berusaha mengumpulkan satu persatu peristilahan yang saya punya semaksimal mungkin untuk saya bagikan kepada generasi penerus di industri perhotelan dan pariwisata Indonesia khususnya,

Berikut sebagian yang bisa saya tampilkan dan akan saya tambahkan secara alphabetical setiap saat apabila memungkinkan.

Saya juga terbuka untuk masukan dan penambahan istilah-istilah ini dari readers.

Common Travel Terms


Accessibility – Ease of access. How easily can the reservation be made
Accreditation – A term applied to the sale of tickets and other services which services which have been approved by various conferences or association
AD – Agent’s Discount
Add On Fare – An amount added to a gateway fare to produce a through fare
Adjoining Rooms – Hotel rooms or ship cabins which share a common wall but without connecting doors between them
Advance Purchase – Excursion Fare A conditional airfare discounted for payment well in advance of departure
Advertised Tour – A tour or travel package which has been assigned an I.T.number, usually presented in a brochure format and meet specific airline requirements
Affinity Charter – An aircraft that has been specifically contracted by affinity group
Affinity Group – An organization formed for a purpose unrelated to travel
Agency Rep – A travel wholesaler representative who promotes the wholesaler services to retailers in the travel industry
Airline plate – A ticket validating instrument
Airport Transfer – The transportation between airport and hotel and vice versa
All Expense Tour – A tour offering all or most services, for a pre-established price
Allocentric Traveler – A person who likes unusual and exotic destinations, adventurous travelers
Allotment – The number of seats, rooms or cabins that a tour company has allocated for group sales also referred to as “blocks”
American Plan – Meal plan that includes all three meals daily
AP – See American Plan
APEX – See Advance Purchase Excursion Fare
Area Settlement Plan – Entity Authorized to handle the processing and payments of airline tickets as reported by the intermediaries
ASP – see Areas Settlement Plan
ATB – Automated ticket/boarding Pass. A new ticket stock that combines the ticket, boarding pass and the baggage check into a single document
Automated Reservation System – Computerized System offering direct access to airlines, hotels, and other suppliers for reservations and ticketing.


BAR – Best Available Rate (BAR), also known as Best Rate Guarantee (BRG), is one of the latest pricing mechanism, increasingly used by hotels and hotel chains around the world. It was introduced as a result of the hotel industry mimicking the airline industry, which sets price by forecasting demand.

There are several interpretations and executions of BAR in the hotel industry. Sheryl E. Kimes defines BAR pricing is an “attempt to reduce confusion and to guarantee that the guest is quoted the lowest available rate for each night of a multiple-night stay.”[fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][1] Galileo, a Global Distribution System provider, defines BAR as “a rate available to the general public that does not require pre-payment and does not impose cancellation or change penalties and/or fees, other than those imposed as a result of a hotel property’s normal cancellation policy.” However, some hotels include “fenced” rates as part of their BAR strategies.

B&B – Bed and Breakfast. A plan including Full Breakfast with room accommodations in guest houses, homes or hotels
Back to Back – Series of program or departures where one group leaves as another group arrives
Back-of-the-House – Part of Establishment that guests do not see
Baggage Allowance – The weight or volume of baggage that may be carried by a passenger without an additional charge
Baggage Check – A claim check issued by a carrier for a passenger’s baggage
Banquet – Usually a formally seated dinner in the evening with speeches in the presence of a VIP
Bareboat – Charter Rental of vessel without supplies of crew
Bed & Breakfast – see B&B
Bermuda Plan – Hotel accommodation with full American Breakfast in the price of room
Bill of Lading – A list giving the detail of a ship’s cargo
Blackout Dates – Certain dates or periods, usually holidays, when travel on specific fares is not permitted
Block Booking – A procedure in which a wholesaler contracts to take a large block of hotel space during high season
Block Space – A reserve number of rooms, seats, or other space, usually reserved in advance for the purpose of selling in a tour package
Boarding Pass – card given to passenger that indicates the seat assignment and that check-in formalities have been completed
Boatel – Accommodation designed for clients traveling by boat
Booking Form – A document completed by tour buyers to give the operators information about the purchasers. The form describes what is being purchased and must be signed to acknowledge that the liability has been noted
Booth – Specific area assigned to an exhibitor under a contractual agreement
BP – see Bermuda Plan
Breakout Sessions – Small group sessions within the meeting, formed to discuss specific subject
Briefing Tour – Promotional tour or advance information on destinations or procedures/facilities
Bulk Fare – A net fare for a certain number of seats
Bumping – Term used when a passenger is unable to travel because other passengers have been given higher priority to travel during an overbooking situation

Cabotage – Transport between two points within a country, especially by foreign carriers
Calendaring – Mapping put the entire operation of a group tour so that no important dates or tasks are overlooked
Cancellation Clause – Provision in a contract which outline penalties if cancellation occurs for failure to comply with terms of agreement
Carnet – A “passport “ for a car that permits it to be brought into a foreign country temporary without the payment of import duties
Cartel – A combination of or an agreement between groups for common action
Charter – To hire the exclusive use of any aircraft, vessel, motor coach or other vehicle
Charter Flight – A flight that does not operate on a regular schedule between two points, available to groups under charter conditions
Circle Fare – A special fare established for individual segments of a circle trip
Circle Trip – A trip involving more than one destination and returning to the origin city
City Pair – The departure and destination points of an air trip
City Terminal – An airline office in the city where passengers may check-in for a flight and obtain ground transportation to the airport
Close Out – The date on which the passenger list finalized and no additional clients can be accepted on the tour
Closed Dates – Time periods when nothing is available because everything id booked
Co-Host – An airline that purchases the right to preferential display in another carrier’s automated reservation system
Colloquium – A seminar that several lectures take turns in leading
Commercial Agency – A travel agency that specializes in business travel
Commercial rate – A specific flat rate at which a hotel agrees to supply rooms a a specified quality to a company or other multiple purchaser
Complimentary Rates – A free space of accommodation given by a supplier for a specified number of paid spaces or accommodations by a group
Concierge – The individual in a hotel who attends to guests’ needs such as porterage, theater reservations, obtaining general information, etc.
Conditional Fare – A fare which entitles the passenger to fly free on the next available flight if the original flight is free
Conference – Usually general sessions and face-to-face groups with high participation to plan, get facts, and solve organization and member problems
Confidential Tariff – A list of rates to be marked up for retail tariff
Configuration – The arrangement of seats and facilities inside a transportation vehicle
Confirmation – Verification that passenger is holding a room, seat or other travel arrangement space
Conglomerate Tours – A combination of a different special interest tours with the same basic itineraries and departure dates with the purpose of creating target tours eligible for lower fares and rates
Connecting Flights – A segment of an ongoing journey that requires the passenger to change plane that is the journey is not a direct flight
Connecting Rooms – Two or more rooms with private connecting doors permitting access without going into the corridor
Consignee – Person to whom goods are shipped
Consolidator – Person or company that puts individual bookings into groups to take advantage of negotiated volume rates
Consortium – A group of persons or business pooling their resources for business purposes such as override commissions, volume, discounts, advertising or bulk purchasing
Continental Plan – A hotel rate that includes room and continental breakfast
Convention – Business or professional meetings usually attended by large numbers of people
Corporate Rate – A special rate offered to business clientele or a rate negotiated upon by a supplier and a company
CP – See Continental Plan
Creative Fares – Fares designed to engender new travel patterns for a specified duration or for a specific market
Cruise – Voyage of pleasure usually departing and returning to the same port of city
Currency Restrictions – Limitations established by a country to control amount of money taken in, out, or exchanged within a country
Customs – The government agency responsible to inspect, restrict and/or impose taxes on goods brought into a country
Customs Declaration – Form for specifying the articles that are brought into the country
Customs Duty – Tax on certain goods being imported

Deadhead – Person traveling on a free pass or any aircraft, vehicle or ship without a payload
Delivering Airline – A carrier transporting a passenger to an interline points
Demi-Pension – A hotel accommodation that includes continental breakfast and table dhote lunch or dinner in the room rate. Same as Modified Plan
Denied Boarding Compensation – A penalty payment made to a passenger by an airline that has not honored a confirmed reservation
Departure Tax – A fee levied on passengers leaving a country
Deposit Reservation – A hotel reservation for which at least one night payment has been received. The hotel must hold the room for the first night no matter how late the guest arrives
Direct Flight – A flight that does not require passenger to change planes but it may make stops
Disclaimer of Liability – Legal concept where responsibility for problem incurred while travelling is not claimed by travel agent who sells those travel arrangements
Documentation – Refers to the official documents such as passports and visas required for international travel
Downline-  All segments of an airline itinerary after the originating flights
Drayage – The cost of transporting goods
Drop Off charges – Fees added when the renter of vehicle does not return the vehicle to the original rental location
Dry Lease – Rental of vehicle without operator, crew and supplies
Duty Free – Not liable to any government custom or excise duty at time of purchase. The goods, however, may subject to duty at the final destination.

Eco-tourism – Travel that focuses on nature, the preservation of environment and controlled management of resources
Educational Visit – Educational tour to a workplace or manufacturing plant of interest to a conference
Elapsed Flying – Time Actual time spent in the air when stops and time differences have been deducted
Entry Requirements – Formalities established by each country’s government to include the official documents needed to enter a country
EP – See European Plan
Escorted Tour – A prepaid prearranged vacation in which a group of people travel together under the guidance of a leader who stays with them throughout the trip
European Plan – A hotel accommodation with no meals included in the cost of rooms
Excess Baggage – Baggage that may cost more to be transported since exceeds the allowed limit
Excursion – A rate for round-trip transportation at a reduced price, usually with limitations as to dates and times of travel
Exhibitions – A display of product or promotional materials for purposes of public relations, sales and/or marketing

Familiarization Tour – An educational programme, generally for travel industry people to a destination for inspection of tourist facilities
Feeder Airline – A local service airline
Final Itinerary – The schedule provided by the travel agent that spells out the detailed programme planned for traveler. This usually delivered shortly before the actual departure
FIT – Foreign Independent Tour or Foreign Inclusive Tour. A tour to foreign country planned according to an individuals requirements
Flag Carrier-  Major carrier designated by a country to serve its international routes
Flight Coupon – The part of standard ticket that is surrendered by the passengers when boarding
Folio – Form on which all charge transactions incurred by registered guests are recorded
Force Majeure – An event that cannot be controlled or anticipated by the tour operator, cruise, airlines, etc.
Forum – A meeting or portion of a meeting, set aside for an open discussion by recognized participants on subjects of public interest
FP – See Full Pension
Frequent Flyer Programme – Travel programme whereby bonuses are offered to passengers who accumulate travel miles by the airline and participating organizations
Full Pension – A hotel accommodation that includes continental breakfast, table d’hote lunch and dinner in the room rate

Gala Dinner – Outstanding social event of the conference, usually in the evening with entertainment and speeches
Gateway – A main city access for any country on which the international fare structure is based
GIT – Group Inclusive Tour. A prepaid tour on which passengers complete the trip going and coming as part of an air package, usually organized by a tour operator
GMT – See Greenwich Mean Time
Gratuity – Tip of payment for services above the cost of the product or service
Greenwich Mean Time – The mean solar time at Greenwich England used as the basis for calculating time throughout the world
Gross Register Ton – A measurement of enclosed space on a ship equal to 100 cubic feet
Ground Arrangements – Any service provided by a tour operator after a passenger reaches his first foreign destination. Ground arrangements do not include overseas travel
Ground Operator – Company or person in destination city handling local travel needs
GRT – See Cost Registered Ton
Guaranteed Reservation – See Deposit Reservation

Half Pension – See Demi Pension
Head Tax – A fee charged by some countries on each arriving or departing passenger
High Season – Period when rates and travel demand are increased
Hospitality Suite – Lounge with connecting bedrooms used for entertainment, usually at conventions and meetings
Host Carrier – The airline directly responsible for a certain reservation system
Hosted Tour – Tour that includes the services of a host who is available at certain times
Hotel Chain – Refer to the linking of hotels with one name and one reservation service
Hotel Package – A combination of transportation, transfers and accommodations included in one rate
Hotel Representative – A company or a person designated by a hotel to promote to intermediaries and the general public, and to provide reservation services
Hotel and Travel Index – An international quarterly publication of hotel facilities, rates and personnel information
Hotel Voucher – A coupon issued by a tour operator to cover payment for hotel accommodation. The guest presents the voucher to the hotel and the hotel bills the tour operator
HP – See Half Pension

In-Plant Agency – A travel agency outlet located on premises of a company, confined to doing business for that company only.
Incentive Travel – A management tool used to accomplish uncommon business goals by awarding participation and extraordinary travel upon attainment of pre-determined goals.
Incidentals – Charges incurred by a tour participant which are not included in the tour price
Inclusive Tours – A tour that includes all elements of an itinerary, usually making it unnecessary for a passenger to spend money for items other than personal extras during the course of the tour
Independent Tour – A package or tour that does not include the services of an escort or a host
Interline – Continuous travel involving two or more airlines
Interline Agreements – Agreements between airlines that allows baggage to be transferred and several different airlines to be written on the same ticket
Intermodal Travel – Continuous travel involving more that one means of transportation
I.T. Number – Inclusive Tour Number on an IATA approved tour that qualifies agents selling air transportation in connection with those agencies for override commissions
Itinerary – An outline of a tour covering daily activities

Joint Fare – A fare agreed upon by more than two carriers to provide service from origin to destination or a fare for an offline connection within a country
Junior Suite – Larger hotel room with a separate lounge area in addition to the bedroom
Junket – A trip offered at the expense of a particular sponsor, usually a casino hotel for gambling purposes

Land Arrangements – See ground arrangement
Land Operator – See Ground operator
Layover – Time and place where a passenger changes planes, trains or other transportation specifics
Leg – The portion of a flight between any two consecutive scheduled stops
Load Factor – The percentage of carrier capacity sold out of the total capacity available for sale
Local fare – A fare for direct flight or the equivalent to an online fare; a fare which applies to transportation on a single carrier
Lodge – A resort inn, a small shelter, the meeting place of a society
Low Season – Period when rates and travel demand are low

Managed Tour – See Escorted Tour
Manifest – A list of passenger or an invoice of cargo for a ship or a plane
MAP – See Modified American Plan
Marina – Port to accommodate small boats with chartering and other marine services available
MCO – See Miscellaneous Charges order
Meeting Planner – Person who plan the details of conventions and business meetings
Minimum Connecting Time – The amount of time established by law, required to change planes
Minimum Land Package – The minimum tour, in cost and components needed to qualify a passenger for an airline inclusive tour, group inclusive tour or contract bulk inclusive tour
Miscellaneous Charges Order – A form used by travel agents and airlines to cover miscellaneous ground arrangement
Modified American Plan – A hotel accommodation that included a full breakfast and either lunch or dinner in the specified room rate
Motel – A hostelry located near major roads, with parking facilities and offer meals. Built and operated for the convenience of motorists

Net Rate – The wholesale rate that is usually marked up for resale to the client
Neutral Unit of Construction – A unit that acts as a common denominator for the calculation of airfares in different currencies
No show – Situation when a client or guest does not arrive for services and fails to cancel the reservation
Non Stop – Transportation made without stops or interruption
NUC – See Neutral Unit of Construction

OAG – See Official Airline Guide
Observation Car – A railroad car specifically designed for sightseeing purposes, usually with swivel seats and domes to assist viewing
Occupancy Rate – The percentage of bed nights sold, compared to total available for sale in a hotel
Off-Line Connection – When a passenger changes planes and airlines on a continuous journey
Off Peak – A fare or hotel rate applied at time that is in the slack season and usually not the busiest
Off Season – Period when tourism is slow or not that heavily booked
Official Airline Guide – A monthly listing of all airline tariffs and flight schedules
Official Hotel & Resort Guide – Worldwide reference directory featuring hotels, motels and resorts
Official Meeting Facilities Guide – Semi-annual directory of worldwide rates, accommodation and meeting capabilities of hotels and resorts
OHRG – See Official Hotel and Resort Guide
OMFG – See Official Meeting Facilities Guide
Open Rate – A fare for a route of IATA airlines have no negotiated a rate for. Each carrier may set its own rates for this case
Open Ticket – A ticket that allows a passenger to secure a reservation at an unspecified later time
Open Jaw Trip – A trip which a passenger returns to a different point from the origin city or depart for the return trip from a point other than the original destination
Outbound – The portion of the trip involved when leaving the origin city and returning to the destination
Overbooking – The deliberate or mistaken confirmation of more reservations than there are seats or rooms
Override commission – Extra commission paid by suppliers for quantity or volume sales and as bonuses or incentives[/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]


Jeffrey Wibisono V. @namakubrandku

Hospitality Consultant Indonesia in Bali – Telu Learning Consulting – Commercial Writer Copywriter – Jasa Konsultan Hotel

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